Manual Where the Wind Blows Volume 8 Cakes

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There are very small spaces between the particles in a solid. Particles are held together by forces of attraction. In solids, these forces are strong enough to hold the particles firmly in position. Does that mean the particles in a solid do not move at all? The particles in a solid move a little bit. They vibrate in their fixed positions.

The more energy the particles have, the faster and more strongly they vibrate. Do you see how we have used the particle model of matter to explain the properties of solids that we can observe? For example, the particles in solids are closely packed and have strong forces between them explains why solids have a fixed shape and you cannot compress them. An important characteristic of liquids is that they flow.

They fill containers they are poured into. Liquids are also not very compressible. How can these properties be explained? In the liquid state, particles do not have fixed positions. They move about freely, but they stay close together because the forces of attraction between them are quite strong, but not as strong as in solids. Have you noticed how a liquid always takes the shape of the container it is in?

Within the liquid, the particles slip and slide past each other. This is why liquid flows. Their particles are free to move around, filling the spaces left by other particles.

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Look at the image of the juice being poured. Let's zoom in and have a look at what the particles are doing as the juice is poured. The particles in a liquid have small spaces between them, but not as small as in solids. The particles in a liquid are loosely arranged which means they do not have a fixed shape like solids, but they rather take the shape of the container they are in.

The speed at which the particles move around inside the liquid depends on the energy of the particles. When we heat a liquid, we are giving the particles more energy and speeding them up. Gases spread out quickly to fill all the space available to them. Think of when you blow up a balloon. The air that you blow into the balloon fills up the whole balloon.

A gas will fill the entire space that is available to it. This is because the particles in a gas have no particular arrangement. Gases do not have a fixed shape. Think about the balloon again: the gas fills the entire space inside the balloon. You can squeeze the balloon, changing the shape. Gas particles move very fast, much faster than in solids and liquids. The particles in a gas possess a lot of energy.

Have you ever tried to compress the gas in a syringe or in a bicycle pump? Why do you think you can compress the gas? This is a good demonstration for learners to try.

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Syringes are cheap and available at most pharmacies. Give each learner three syringes. Let them fill on with sand, one with water and one with air. They then close the nozzle of each syringe tightly with rubber or their finger and squeeze the plunger. Let them observe and try to explain their observations. In gases, the forces between particles are very weak. This explains why the particles in gases are not neatly arranged.

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They are not held together tightly and there are large spaces between them. These spaces are much larger than in the solid and liquid state. Gases can be compressed, because their particles can be forced closer together. Look at the photo of a scuba diver underwater. Do you see the tank on his back? He uses this tank to breathe underwater. A scuba diver can stay underwater for almost an hour.

How do you think he can get enough air to breathe for a whole hour from a small tank like that? Discuss this with your class. The answer is that the air is compressed so that a lot more air fits into the tank than if the air were not compressed.

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The scuba diver therefore has enough air to last up to an hour. Let's summarize what we have learned about what the particle model of matter tells us about solids, liquids and gases. These are extension questions to make sure learners can use what they have learned about the particle model of matter to explain the observable properties of solids, liquids and gases.

Solids have a fixed shape as their particles are arranged in a regular, fixed arrangement and they have strong forces holding them together, so the shape of the solid remains fixed. The particles in a gas do not have any particular arrangement and there are very, very weak forces between them.

So, the particles in a gas can easily move around and fill the shape of the container they are in, meaning they have no fixed shape. The particles in a gas have very large spaces between them, so the particles can be 'squashed' closer together, meaning the gas can easily be compressed to take up a smaller volume. Liquids have very small spaces between the particles and so it is much harder to 'squash' them together, so they are not easily compressed. The cake flour is not a liquid, but a solid.

Flour, and all powders, are solids made of very fine grains which are able to flow freely when they container is tilted or shaken. But these grains are solid. This is a tricky question and you should discuss it in class. A common misconception among learners is that powders are liquids as you can 'pour' them and they take the shape of the container they are in.

They are NOT liquids.

Point out to learners that you cannot evaporate a powder, as you can with a liquid, the powder does not make your fingers wet when you touch it. A video explaining the difference between the solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter.

Have you ever noticed how quickly smells travel? Perhaps you have walked past a rubbish bin, and smelled the garbage.

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Have you ever smelled a stink bomb? When you smell these things, how do the 'stink bomb' or 'garbage' particles reach your nose? Get learners to briefly discuss what stink bombs are for. They may say a stink bomb can be used to play a prank on someone. The smelly particles mix with the air and when we breathe the air, we smell them.

Most smells travel fast, because their particles mix with air and get into our noses when we breathe.