A second limitation is that this is a cross-sectional study, so an unknown confounder may explain the observed relationship. However, because of the number and scope of predictor variables we included in our analysis, it is difficult to imagine a potential confounder that would still be influential over and above what is already included in the models. Nevertheless, repeating this study with a longitudinal design would help to establish whether the observed relationship is a causal one. The public health implication of these findings is that reductions in the prevalence of firearms may be an effective strategy for reducing overall and firearm-related suicides among male persons and for reducing firearm-related suicides among female persons.
As suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States, and firearm-related deaths and injuries are extraordinarily costly, reducing firearm-related self-injury and suicide is a public health imperative. Institutional review board approval was not needed for this study because secondary data sources were used. PMID: Peer Reviewed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed August 7, Google Scholar.
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The association between changes in household firearm ownership and rates of suicide in the United States, — Inj Prev. Briggs JT , Tabarrok A. Firearms and suicides in US states. Int Rev Law Econ. Birckmayer J , Hemenway D. Suicide and firearm prevalence: are youth disproportionately affected? Suicide Life Threat Behav. Hemenway D , Miller M. Association of rates of household handgun ownership, lifetime major depression, and serious suicidal thoughts with rates of suicide across US census regions. Kaplan MS , Geling O. Firearm suicides and homicides in the United States: regional variations and patterns of gun ownership.
Soc Sci Med. Kleck G , Patterson EB. The impact of gun control and gun ownership levels on violence rates. J Quant Criminol. Lester D. Firearm availability and the incidence of suicide and homicide. Acta Psychiatr Belg. Gun control, gun ownership, and suicide prevention.
Gun ownership and suicide in the United States. Psychol Med. Ludwig J , Cook PJ , eds. Firearms and suicide in the United States. A theoretical model of adolescent suicide and some evidence from US data.
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Health Econ. Firearm availability and unintentional firearm deaths, suicide, and homicide among 5—14 year olds. Firearm availability and suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths among women.
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J Urban Health. Firearms and suicide in the northeast. Building on other recent work, our data suggest a critical need for increased preventative and treatment resources in the area of child maltreatment. PMID: Peer Reviewed. Related No related items. Previous Article Next Article. Export Citation. Track Citations. Cindy H. Email: chliu bwh.
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Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. The college years represent a period of increased vulnerability for a wide range of mental health MH challenges. The onset of common psychiatric conditions occurs during this period of development. Increases in depression, anxiety, and suicidality among U. This study identified prevalence and correlates of MH diagnoses and suicidality in a recent sample of U. Stress was strongly associated with a greater likelihood of suicide attempts and MH diagnoses, even among students reporting 1—2 stressful events OR [odds ratio] range 1.
Transgender students reported a higher rate of MH diagnoses and suicidality relative to females OR range 1. The high rate of multiple stress exposures among the U.
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Campuses must consider student experiences to mitigate stress during this developmental period. Depression, anxiety, and suicidality rates are rising among U. With media attention on incidents from untreated psychological problems Jolicoeur, , these high rates underscore MH as a growing public health concern within college campuses. Together, the college years represent a period of increased vulnerability for the development of a wide range of MH challenges.
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A major research gap is the lack of update on rates of MH diagnoses and the most severe symptoms among minority students. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive analysis conducted based on U. To develop a clear strategy for practitioners and policy makers in addressing MH access and stigma on U.
We present MH data for U. Each institution selected a random sample of enrolled students who were 18 years of age and older. This analysis was exempt from human subjects review according to the Institutional Review Board. Participants reported having been diagnosed or treated by a professional within the past 12 months for 15 MH diagnoses: anorexia, anxiety, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, bulimia, depression, insomnia, other sleep disorder, obsessive—compulsive disorder, panic attacks, phobia, schizophrenia, substance abuse or addiction alcohol or other drugs , other addiction e.
The sum of the symptoms variable was coded as missing if the participant omitted any answer within the list of 11 symptoms presented or if participants were missing responses to the diagnoses questions. MH diagnoses were common, with one in four students reporting being diagnosed with or treated for a MH disorder in the prior year. Despite lower rates of MH diagnoses than Whites, Asians exhibited significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts.
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Multiracial students also showed significantly elevated rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Even low levels of stress exposure that were traumatic or very difficult to handle 1 to 2 events were associated with a nearly twofold increase the likelihood of suicidal ideation across the sample.
The high rate of multiple stress exposures among the college population and the potential high impacts of stress on MH and suicidality point to an urgent need for strategies to reduce student stress.